Staging describes or classifies a cancer based on how much cancer there is in the body and where it is when first diagnosed. This is often called the extent of cancer. Information from tests is used to find out the size of the tumour, what part of the breast has cancer, whether the cancer has spread from where it first started and where the cancer has spread. Your healthcare team uses the stage to plan treatment and estimate the outcome your prognosis.
Lymphedema is a problem that may occur after cancer surgery when lymph nodes are removed. Lymphedema can occur months or years after treatment. But steps can be taken to help keep it from starting, and to reduce or relieve symptoms.
Metastatic dissemination employs both the blood and lymphatic vascular systems. Solid tumors dynamically remodel and generate both vessel types during cancer progression. Lymphatic vessel invasion and cancer cells in the tumor-draining lymph nodes LNs are prognostic markers for breast cancer metastasis and patient outcome, and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis likely influences metastasis. Deregulated tumor tissue fluid homeostasis and immune trafficking associated with tumor lymphangiogenesis may contribute to metastatic spreading; however, the precise functional characterization of lymphatic endothelial cells LECs in tumors is challenged by the lack of specific reagents to decipher their rate-limiting role in metastasis. We demonstrate that suppression of lymphangiogenesis is successfully achieved in lymphangioma lesions induced in the PDPN-tk mice.